Sheet 1: Consonants

labial coronal dorsal glottal
stop implosive ɓ <b> ɗ <d>

plain p t
ʔ <’>
nasal m n ŋ <ng>
fricative -lateral
s ʁ <gh>
ɬ <hl>

ɾ <r>

ŋ <g>
ɬ <l> or <lh>
ʔ can be unwritten as its placement is predictable, and it may be elided word internally

Sheet 2: Vowels

i u
ei eu
e o
oi ou
ai au

Sheet 3: Stress

stress patterns:
ˈbai ˈbaba Syllables are considered heavy if they contain a diphthong, otherwise they are light syllables.
baˈbai baˈbaba Words must end with two light syllables or a heavy syllable,
ˌbaiˈbai ˌbaiˈbaba except for some function words which are made of one light syllable only.

The primary stress falls on the ultimate syllable if heavy, and penultimate if light.

Secondary stress is applied one heavy or two light syllables left of the primary syllable.

Sheet 4: Lexicon

'amau n mom
'aumei n flower
'obou n dad
mei’ou n child
meu n eyes
ngei n water
nou n head
pe’oi n fish
doi pn 2s
nai pn 3sf
nane pn 3sm
ni pn 3sn
se pn 1s
'e ptcl beneficiary, goal
ba ptcl cause; source; gen1
na ptcl PF
ngo ptcl locative; instrumental; comitative; possessive
pa ptcl BF
teu ptcl CF
hloi v give
mai v eat
tei v see

Sheet 5: Voice

focus: voice ptcl V S pp n
tei amau si peoi mom sees a fish
patient na tei peoi rau amau fish is seen by mom
inst/loc teu tei meu rau amau using eyes, mom sees
goal/bene pa tei se rau amau for me, mom sees

Sheet 6: Possession

Possessed nouns are inflected with a pronoun that corresponds with the possessor.

1 2 3n 3m 3f

(-)sV- (-)do- (-)nV- nan(V)- (-)na-
nou – head soˈnou doˈnou noˈnou ˌnanoˈnou naˈnou
obou – dad ˌosoˈbou ˌodoˈbou ˌonoˈbou ˌnanoˈbou ˌanoˈbou
pe’oi – fish ˌsepeˈoi ˌdopeˈoi ˌnepeˈoi naˌnepeˈoi ˌnapeˈoi
au’mei – flower aˌsauˈmei oˌdauˈmei aˌnauˈmei naˌnauˈmei aˌnauˈmei
mei’ou – child seˌmeiˈou doˌmeiˈou neˌmeiˈou ˌnaneˌmeiˈou naˌmeiˈou

Possessor nouns are marked with a preposition.
Ba is for inalienable possession (mainly relations and products), eg family members, the fruit of a tree, the creation of an artisan, inherent qualities
Ngo is used for alienable possession (mainly items and property), eg a knife in ones possession, a fruit one is holding, a temporary quality
Pronouns are usually unnecessary as they are marked on possessees, but can be used for emphasis, clarification, or on their own. They have special forms instead of using the prepositions.

1 2 3n 3m 3f
inalienable seba badoi niba banane banai
alienable sengo ngodoi ningo ngonane ngonai

Sheet 7: Prepositions

erg acc from/because at/with to/for
rau si ba ngo e
agent patient source location goal

cause instrument beneficiant